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There are many kinds of magnetron sputtering. There are different working principles and application objects. But there is one thing in common: using the interaction of magnetic field and electric field, the electrons move in a spiral shape near the target surface, thus increasing the probability of electrons impacting argon to produce ions. The ions produced by the magnetron sputtering platform hit the target surface under the action of electric field, thus splashing out the target.
The target source is divided into equilibrium and non-equilibrium type, the equilibrium type target source coating is uniform, and the non-equilibrium type target source coating has strong binding force with the substrate. The balanced target source is mainly used for semiconductor optical films, and the unbalanced target source is mainly used for wear decorative films. According to the different distribution of magnetic field configuration, the magnetron cathodes can be roughly divided into equilibrium and non-equilibrium. The magnetic flux of the inner and outer magnetic steel of the balanced magnetic control cathode is approximately the same, the two pole magnetic field lines are closed to the target surface, which confines the electron / plasma to the target surface well, increases the collision probability, and improves the ionization efficiency. Therefore, the glow discharge can be started and maintained under the lower working pressure and voltage, and the utilization ratio of the target material is relatively high, but the movement of the electron along the magnetic field lines is mainly closed to The concept of unbalanced magnetron sputtering technology is that the magnetic flux of the outer pole of the magnetron cathode is larger than that of the inner pole, the magnetic field lines of the two poles are not completely closed on the target, some of the magnetic field lines can extend to the substrate along the edge of the target, so some electrons can extend to the substrate along the magnetic field lines, increasing the plasma density and gas ionization rate in the substrate area Whether the balance is unbalanced or not, if the magnet is stationary, its magnetic field characteristics determine that the utilization rate of the general target is less than 30%. In order to increase the utilization ratio of the target, the rotating magnetic field can be used. But the rotating magnetic field needs a rotating mechanism, and the sputtering rate should be reduced. Rotating magnetic field is mostly used for large or valuable targets. Such as semiconductor film sputtering. For small equipment and general industrial equipment, magnetic static target source is used.
It is easy to sputter metals and alloys with magnetron target source, and easy to ignite and sputter. This is because the target (cathode), plasma, and splashed parts / vacuum cavity can form a circuit. But if sputtering insulator such as ceramic, the circuit will be broken. So people use high-frequency power supply, and a strong capacitance is added to the circuit. In this way, the target becomes a capacitor in the insulating circuit. However, the high frequency magnetron sputtering power supply is expensive, the sputtering rate is very small, and the grounding technology is very complex, so it is difficult to use it on a large scale. In order to solve this problem, magnetron reactive sputtering was invented. It is to use metal target, add argon and reaction gas such as nitrogen or oxygen. When the metal target collides with the part, it combines with the reaction gas to form nitride or oxide due to energy conversion.
Magnetron reactive sputtering insulator seems easy, but it is difficult to operate. The main problem is that the reaction occurs not only on the surface of parts, but also on the surface of anode, vacuum cavity and target source. So as to cause fire-extinguishing, arc on target source and workpiece surface, etc. The twin target source technology invented by German LeiBao solves this problem well. The principle is that a pair of target sources are cathode and anode to each other, so as to eliminate anodizing or nitriding on the anode surface.
Cooling is necessary for all sources (magnetically controlled, multi arc, ion), because a large part of energy is converted into heat. If there is no cooling or insufficient cooling, this heat will make the target temperature reach more than 1000 degrees and dissolve the whole target.