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Magnetron sputtering (磁控溅射台))

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Sputtering is to bombard the target surface with charged particles in vacuum溅射镀膜就是在真空中利用荷能粒子轰击靶表面

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Sputtering is to bombard the target surface with charged particles in vacuum溅射镀膜就是在真空中利用荷能粒子轰击靶表面

发布日期:2019-06-08 作者:www.cycas.com 点击:

溅射镀膜就是在真空中利用荷能粒子轰击靶表面,使被轰击出的粒子沉积在基片上的技术。通常,利用低压惰性气体辉光放电来产生入射离子。阴极靶由镀膜材料制成,基片作为阳极,真空室中通入0.1-10Pa的氩气或其它惰性气体,在阴极(靶)1-3KV直流负高压或13.56MHz的射频电压作用下产生辉光放电。电离出的氩离子轰击靶表面,使得靶原子溅出并沉积在基片上,形成薄膜。溅射方法很多,主要有二级溅射、三级或四级溅射、磁控溅射、对靶溅射、射频溅射、偏压溅射、非对称交流射频溅射、离子束溅射以及反应溅射等。

由于被溅射原子是与具有数十电子伏特能量的正离子交换动能后飞溅出来的,因而溅射出来的原子能量高,有利于提高沉积时原子的扩散能力,提高沉积组织的致密程度,使制出的薄膜与基片具有强的附着力。

溅射时,气体被电离之后,气体离子在电场作用下飞向接阴极的靶材,电子则飞向接地的壁腔和基片。这样在低电压和低气压下,产生的离子数目少,靶材溅射效率低;而在高电压和高气压下,尽管可以产生较多的离子,但飞向基片的电子携带的能量高,容易使基片发热甚至发生二次溅射,影响制膜质量。另外,靶材原子在飞向基片的过程中与气体分子的碰撞几率也大为增加,因而被散射到整个腔体,既会造成靶材浪费,又会在制备多层膜时造成各层的污染。

       Sputtering coating is a technology that bombards the target surface with charged particles in vacuum to deposit the bombarded particles on the substrate. Usually, the incident ions are produced by glow discharge of low pressure inert gas. The cathode target is made of coating material, the substrate is used as anode, and 0.1-10pa argon or other inert gas is introduced into the vacuum chamber to generate glow discharge under 1-3kv DC negative high voltage or 13.56MHz RF voltage of cathode (target). The ionized argon ions bombard the target surface, making the target atoms splash and deposit on the substrate, forming a thin film. There are many sputtering methods, including secondary sputtering, tertiary or quaternary sputtering, magnetron sputtering, target sputtering, RF sputtering, bias sputtering, asymmetric AC RF sputtering, ion beam sputtering and reactive sputtering. 

     Because the sputtered atoms are splashed out after exchanging kinetic energy with positive ions with tens of electron volts energy, the sputtered atoms have high energy, which is conducive to improving the diffusion ability of atoms during deposition, improving the density of deposited structure, and making the film and substrate have strong adhesion.

     During sputtering, after the gas is ionized, the gas ions fly to the cathode target under the action of electric field, and the electrons fly to the grounded wall cavity and substrate. In this way, under low voltage and low pressure, the number of ions produced is small, and the sputtering efficiency of the target is low; while under high voltage and high pressure, although more ions can be produced, the high energy carried by the electrons flying to the substrate is easy to heat the substrate or even cause secondary sputtering, which affects the film quality. In addition, the collision probability between the target atoms and the gas molecules increases greatly in the process of flying to the substrate, so it will be scattered to the whole cavity, which will not only cause the target waste, but also cause the pollution of each layer in the preparation of multilayer.

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